How does PRP work for assisting wound healing?
PRP functions as a tissue sealant and drug delivery system, with the platelets initiating wound repair by releasing locally acting growth factors via α-granules degranulation. These growth factors aid healing by attracting un-differentiated cells in the newly formed matrix and triggering cell division. PRP may suppress cytokine release and limit inflammation, interacting with macrophages to improve tissue healing and regeneration, promote new capillary growth, and accelerate epithelialization in chronic wounds.
Platelets in PRP also play a role in host defense mechanism at the wound site by producing signalling proteins that attract macrophages; PRP also may contain a small number of leukocytes that synthesize interleukins as part of a non-specific immune response. Previous studies of PRP have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans.
PRP is easy to produce with minimal effort and can be prepared as needed at the point of care.
Role of PRP in Patient Care in Addition to Standard Modalities
Topical growth factor products are typically used as adjuvant treatments along with the standard of care for treatment of diabetic foot ulceration, including debridement, off-loading, optimal dressing material and wound environment, frequent dressing changes, and compression for wounds with an origin of vascular insufficiency. The efficacy of these therapies has been shown in previous studies, and their importance cannot be stressed enough.