How is the PRP extracted from the patient’s blood?
- Alocuro’s PRO-PRP kit is used to increase platelet concentration within plasma. It is a point of care device where a blood sample is carefully collected from the patient by venepuncture according to AABB and WHO guidelines . Anti-coagulant, ACD-A is added to the blood collection syringe prior to venepuncture .
- The blood sample is then introduced into the Pro-PRP device, which is an efficiently designed, non-toxic, sterile and pyrogen free vessel that will hold the blood sample temporarily whilst the cellular components of the sample are being separated by use of a specific centrifugation protocol
- Post centrifugation, varying volumes of the platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) can be extracted depending on the intended therapeutic use, and whether leukocytes are to be included in the PRP or not.
- The clinician will then inject the small volume of autologous concentrated PRP into the target area.
The protocols for patient information, patient consent, training of clinicians, post procedure care, QA of patient outcomes etc. will all be performed under best practice guidelines to ensure that patients receive accurate information about the potential benefits / risks prior to consenting, and also that their PRP procedure is performed to the highest degree of precision and care.
What happens when you centrifuge blood
Due to differences in the density of the blood components, When anti-coagulated blood is centrifuged, three layers appear:
- bottom layer consists of red blood cells;
- the middle layer contains platelets and leukocytes;
- the top layer is made up of platelet-poor plasma;
The centrifugation steps should be as delicate as possible but allowing a clean separation of the blood components.
(Note: The lower part of the middle layer is also called buffy coat, which is rich in leukocytes).
Why use anti-coagulant
Anti-coagulant, ACD-A or CPDA, is necessary to preserve a liquid sample where various cellular components of whole blood can move freely within the separation vessel. Additionally, when no anticoagulant is used, platelets can be activated by the mechanical stress of centrifugation.
Using ACD-A or CPDA as an anticoagulant maintains the integrity of the platelet structure by preventing spontaneous platelet activation and coagulation proteins from initiating a clotting cascade.
It is important NOT TO use Sodium Citrate as an anticoagulant as multiple research studies have shown its higher pH causes platelets to aggregate and will negatively affect the platelet membrane minimising Growth Factor release at the time of injection into tissue requiring regeneration.
PRP Quality can be affected by
- Patient's venous status – packed cell volume, hydration and medications
- Circadian rhythms